Also at the beginning of the 1991, in January, Russia started a war with Chechnya

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1991 was very important year for all fifteen constituent republics in Soviet Union, as it was a year of change. For most of them it was a sign of independence. But at the same time such freedom was very dangerous and harmful during first five or more years not only for small countries, but also for such strong, like Russia.

Since the USSR’s collapse, Russia has faced many problems that free market proponents in 1992-1993 did not expect: among other things, 25% of a population lived below the poverty line, life expectancy was fallen, birthrates were low, and GDP was halved. These problems led to a series of crises in the 1990’s, which nearly led to election of Yeltsin’s Communist challenger, Gennady Zyuganov, in the 1996 presidential election. After such changes Russia had to improve greatly, due to major investment and business development and also due to high prices of natural resources.

Also at the beginning of the 1991, in January, Russia started a war with Chechnya.

Russia is a member of the United Nations from 1991, just after it became independent state. During 1993-1994, when Rwanda conflict only started Russia agree with a UN Peacekeeping mission to Rwanda that was established by Security Council. According to Russia’s positions at that time, is that the most important general development of the 1990’s is to stop all the unquestionable failures, like Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda. Russia also agreed with UN need help and stop genocide in Rwanda.

In 1990’s Yugoslavia broke up into Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Slovenia. Such division brought violent between the borders against humanity. In Bosnia appeared a civic war between various religious, ethnic and political factions for years. Such situation was not extremely dangerous for the citizens of these countries, but also for close neighbor states. Russia supports for Yugoslavia sovereignty. Russia also was one of the founders of a Resolution 743, which states to National Protection Force into the Yugoslav Republic with a peaceful mission.

After 1991 all countries that were in the Soviet Union wanted independence for their states. Chechnya was one of such states. That time Chechnya was a part of Russia Federation, but when after collapsing of the Soviet Union it had a chance to be independent. The president of Chechnya, Dudaev, in 1991 informed Russia, that his country is not a part of it. Dudaev formed an absolute power and also ignored any low or order from the Russian side. For such reasons Russia informed about special dangerous situation in Chechnya. Dudaev stared to form the army, because in Chechnya there were big sources of weapon. Russia was trying to sold this problem diplomatically, but it had no results. When in 1994 a group of Russian people died, Russia started a war.

The end of the twentieth century was very a time of changes. Russia is one of the countries that was in the middle of all events. As Russia was in the UN Security Council, she agree with all doings of a UN and was important part of it.
Russia, officially the Russian Federation. The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China along the southern land border. The Kaliningrad Region is an exclave on the Baltic Sea bordered by Lithuania and Poland. Moscow is the capital and largest city.

In its political meaning, the term Russia applies to the Russian Empire until 1917, to the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from 1917 to 1991, and to the Russian Federation since 1991. The name also is often used informally to mean the whole of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); the Russia Federation was established in 1991 when the USSR disintegrated and the former RSFSR became an independent nation. The term Russia also is used to designate the area inhabited by the Russian people as distinguished from other Eastern Slavs and from non-Slavic peoples.

According to the Constitution, which was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Russia is a federation and a presidential republic, wherein the President of Russia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Russia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of Russia.

The president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term but constitutionally barred for a third consecutive term)

Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president. The national legislature is the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers; the 450-member State Duma and the 176-member Federation Council. According to the Constitution of Russia, constitutional justice in the court is based on the equality of all citizens, judges are independent and subject only to the law, trials are to be open and the accused is guaranteed a defense. Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and Fair Russia.

After 1990’s, that were years of crises, economy of Russia increased dramatically. Now Russia is one of the countries in the world with the strongest economy. Economical structure include: booty of fuel and energy minerals ; tsellyulozno-bumazhnoe production (forest resources of Russia — the largest in the world); publishing and polygraph activity; metallurgical production; production and distributing of electric power, gas and water.

Russia possesses the largest supplies of natural gas found out in the world also, and also is his largest producer. In addition, Russia divides the first-second place of the oil obtained on volume, and on volume its export occupies the second place. The large deposits of coal are present in Republic of Komi, in East Siberia and on Far East. Russia is also rich in an iron-stone, nickel, tin, gold, diamonds, platinum, lead, zinc. Many of these resources are in Siberia, where large distances, weak population density, severe climate and long-term frozen condition of ground, create considerable difficulties for an economic effective booty and transporting of raw material to the places of processing and consumption.

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