Countries Where Influence was Greatest

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21 Chapter 16: Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750

Countries Where Influence was Greatest

Relation with Government

Views on Government

Basic Tenets


Roman Catholics

Ireland, Portugal, Spain, France, Austria, Italy, Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Lithuania, Transylvania, Bohemia, Sicily

  1. Peaceful

  2. Used gov. to enforce nonsecular rules

  3. Allowed church to enfore indulgences

  4. Gov. didn’t sponsor church

  1. Papacy should have power

  2. Male dominated

  3. Any challenge is silenced

  4. Churches should tax for projectsi


Witch hunts


Set up parishes

Aided the poor

Set up schools

Manipulation of people and the basic tenets



Misuse of trust of people and power in society

Catholic Reformation; Jesuitseducation



Witch hunts

Martin Luther/ Lutheranism

Germany-start, spread by printing press

Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden)-around Baltic Sea, Germanic languages (writings could be spread)

-Martin Luther condemned, outlawed at Diet of Worms

-denounced corrupt leaders

-Lutheranism suppressed by gov’t

-challenge to church = challenge to gov’t

-supported German principalities

Theological controversies broke out

Martin Luther objected to the way the new indulgence was preached

Church blocked his reform

Wants to see a separation of church and state

More secular govt (non religious)

Supportive of princes as a wage of religious freedom

Supportive of nobility than that of the church

Objection to Catholic indulgences

-salvation w/ faith in God’s word (Bible) and faith in Jesus. not just following clergy; why he opposed the selling of indulgences by the Catholic church

-still believed in heaven/hell (retained some basic beliefs from Catholicism)

-rejected authority of Pope/Catholic church hierarchy

-clergy could get married

-simplified religion vs Catholic pomp, wealth

- Martin Luther wanted to leave the Catholic Church




95 Theses

Spread through printing press

Direct Relationship

“no middleman”

German Principalities gave support

Translated the bible

People could read the bible themselves

Many were jealous of the catholic church

John Calvin/ Calvinism

Western Europe

France(not embraced), Hugenots(French Protestants), England, Germany, Holland, Belgium, German states

Bad relationship with French monarchy

Opponents of Valois rulers in France

Better relation with government of Holland and Belgium

Okay relationship with England

Not accepted by Catholic German principalities but others

-Government ordained by God

-civil authority

- wanted separation of church and state

-organized religion (regional elders)

Against catholic rulers, not concepts

-Christian religion

-denied that human faith could merit salvation

-salvation was a gift from God to people he chose



- sprouted from Geneva and then spread from there

-book that helped spread his beliefs and intellect

- Institutes of Christian Religion

- congregations electing own committees

- influence through authenticity

Henry VIII

HuAreas under control of the English Crown: Wales Scotland, England, Cornwall, Ireland

Spain= Princess Of Spain

Spain Upset= Britain no longer Catholic Elisabeth I stops the Spanish Armada

  1. Henry violent temper

  2. Loved his country

  3. Believed in Magna Carta

  4. Worked with Parliament

  5. Was an enlightened despot

  6. Wanted a heir

  7. Wants a divorce/annulment

  8. Gov. tries to help

  9. Pope denies it

  10. Act of Supremacy

  11. Concerns but passes

  12. Ann adamant for divorce so her child is rightful heir

  13. Friend Sir Thomas Moore- could not support the Act of Supremacy, executed by Henry

  14. Sends Britan into 30 year religious war P/C

Viewed himself as all-powerful

An Enlightened Despot

Recognized Parliament

Perceived government as more powerful than the church despite union

Patterned after Catholic church

Christian/Act of Supremacy

Monarch head instead of pope

Did get rid of some of the wealth,power and pomp

Christian religion


Own clergy

Clergy can wed

Administer communion

Not on weekly basis

Believe in Heaven and hell


  1. Devout Catholic throughout life

  2. Ask the pope for annulment, pope denies

  3. Challenges papacy’s authority over the church

  4. Act of Supremacy: break with Rome sealed when Parliament made English monarch head of Church of England

  5. Parliament approved

  6. Broke apart monasteries and convents

  7. Seized these lands and sold them to pay for his new navy

  8. As reward to his allies and supporters, gave them some of these church lands

  9. Takes contents inside monasteries and convents and sells or gives them

  10. Takes that money and that goes into treasury of Great Britain

  11. Money improves and enlarges navy



Massachusetts Bay Colony (Boston)

Modern day USA


New England Colonies

Pilgrim=colony of Plymouth on the coast of Massachusetts

Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Not a good relationship with the Crown: wanted to change the Catholic church

  • Wanted to change official religion of England

Company charter

Result=greater autonomy and local political involvement

-school every 50 families

-literacy for scripture

-new England driving force for revolution due to greater education

-two fold theocratic government

-strong religious influence in gov.

-state enforced law of god

-no hierarchal church positions

Calvinists who wanted to purify the Anglican church of catholic practices and beliefs

Salvation was the gift of god

  • Bible and belief in heaven and hell

  • Direct relationship with god, didn’t believe in the popes authority


Tried to get a petition signed in England to do away w/ bishops

-abolish religious hierarchies

-limited membership; exclusive group

-threatened people; fear tactics

-emigrated to Massachusetts

-flogged if asleep in church

-paid heavy fines to community if missed a service

-public humiliation + fear tactics; stockades,

Chart 16.1

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