Study guide for world studies semester II final

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Chapter 20

Focus on the Spanish exploration & conquest of the American continents.

Understand the Spanish role with respect to the importation & enslavement of Africans in the Americas.

Know the importance of key Spanish leaders such as Hernando Cortes & Francisco Pizarro.

Understand the reasons why the Spanish were able to defeat the Aztecs & Incas.

Know the results of the loss of Native American lives to disease.

Understand why Europeans saw Africans as a better source of labor than Native Americans.

Understand how slavery in African & Muslim societies differed from slavery in the Americas.

Explain the Columbian Exchange and know which goods were transported & exchanged across the Atlantic.

How did Bartolome de Las Casas affect race relations in the Americas?

How was Africa affected by the Atlantic slave trade?

What prompted a wave of new businesses & trade practices in Europe in the 16th & 17th centuries?

Chapter 21

Know the following terms: Divine Right & Glorious Revolution. Which English monarch came to power after the Glorious Revolution?

What kind of system of government did England become by the end of the 1600s?

Who were the Puritans? Why was Oliver Cromwell important? How did the finally win the English Civil War?

What did Louis XIV mean by the expression “I am the state”? What political purpose did the Palace of Versailles serve?

Who was Peter the Great? Why did he build the city of St. Petersburg?

What was Peter the Great’s connection to the “westernization of Russia”?

Chapter 22

What were some of the basic beliefs philosophes? How did the philosophes influence Catherine the Great? What ideas did the Enlightenment promote?

In which ways does the main character in Richardson’s Pamela reflect Enlightenment ideas?

What were some the important ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence? Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

How did the Enlightenment embody Enlightenment ideas?

How did Montesquieu influence the U.S. Constitution?

Which philosopher’s beliefs contracted the ideas of the U.S. Constitution?

Who was Thomas Hobbes? How was he similar to Catherine the Great?

What were some of the specific artistic works that were banned by censors of the Catholic church?

Why did the church ban these works?

What was the scientific revolution? What were some of its major results?

Chapter 23

What percentage of the French population made up each of the 3 estates in the Estates-General?

What major event happened on July 14, 1789?

Which document stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”?

What was the “:Reign of Terror”? Who was safe from it?

What was Napoleon able to accomplish during peacetime?

Know the important goals of the Congress of Vienna and the names of its leaders.

Chapter 24

Know the importance of the following individuals: Toussaint L’Ouverture, Padre Hidalgo, Giuseppe Garibaldi, & Otto von Bismarck.

How did Simon Bolivar help Spanish colonies achieve their independence? What role did Jose de San Martin play in the same movement?

What are some of the basic ideas about nationalism?

How did Germany & Italy become unified nations?

Chapter 25

What was the Industrial Revolution? How did the Industrial Revolution impact cities?

What is the laissez-faire policy?

What are unions & why are they important?

What are some examples of 19th Century reform movements?

What did William Wilberforce fight for in the 1800s?

What was the impact of the steam engine on the production of goods?

Chapter 26

Who was Louis Pasteur & why was his work important in the history of medicine?

What were some of the basic ideas of Charles Darwin expressed his book The Origin of Species?

Who was Sigmund Freund? Explain his idea of psychoanalysis.

During the 19th Century how did democratic reforms in Great Britain change the government?

What were some of the basic actions & results of the women’s suffrage movement?

Chapter 27

What was the historical significance of the 1885 Berlin Conference?

Who was Stanley Livingstone & why was he important?

Why did the European imperialist countries want to take control over Africa?

How were the Africans exploited in the Belgian Congo?

Know the importance of the following terms: paternalism & assimilation.

What was the main cause of inadequate food supplies in Africa during European colonization?

Chapter 29

Know the terms entangling alliances, imperialism, nationalism, & militarism.

What are the links between militarism & imperialism?

Know how the above major causes led to WWI.

What region of Europe was known as the “powder keg”?

What event in Sarajevo ignited WWI?

Who was Germany’s leader during WWI?

Understand the following terms: Schlieffen Plan, Armistice Day, Fourteen Points.

Why did Bismarck seek alliances that later became known as the Triple Alliance?

In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles impact postwar Germany?

What was American public opinion about joining the League of Nations?

How did the Allies respond to Wilson’s vision for peace?

What did the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare refer to?

Know the major results of WWI.

Chapter 30

Who were the Bolsheviks?

What are the features of a totalitarian state?

What was the purpose of the Soviet state’s Five Year Plans?

How did czars Alexander III & Nicholas II deal with calls for reform?

What impact did Russia’s involvement in WWI have on the Russian government?

Chapter 31

After WWI most European nations had what type of government if only temporarily?

What even marked the beginning of the Great Depression?

Know the major causes & results of the Great Depression.

What are some of the basic characteristics of Fascism?

Who were the major Axis powers?

Be familiar with the following people: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Halie Selassie.

What caused Germans to take Hitler & his message seriously?

What was the goal of US isolationists after WWI?

What was the policy of appeasement? How does this term relate to the Munich Conference?

Why did Japan invade Manchuria?

Why was the Nazi-Soviet Pact important & how did it impact the balance of power?

Why did millions of Germans turn against the leaders of the Weimar Republic?

Why did Hitler target the Jewish population as scapegoats for Germany’s problems?

How did Winston Churchill relate to the policy of appeasement?

Chapter 32

Know the major causes & results of WWII.

In what ways was Japan different from its allies Germany & Italy?

What prompted Great Britain & France to declare war on Germany?

What military advantage did the German Blitzkrieg rely on?

What was the “date which will live in infamy”?

Why were the following battles significant? -- Bulge, Midway, Stalingrad & El Alamein?

What was “island hopping”?

How did Japan try to build a Pacific empire?

Why was the Lend-Lease Act important?

What issues did the Nuremberg Trials address?

What did the use of kamikaze pilots show about Japanese culture?

What was the goal of Hitler’s Final Solution?

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