2.4 The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700
Drill: Mughals & Sikhs
Mughals –Muslems who establish an empire in India
Sikhs- belived in a mixture of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism.
Objective: Students will review how the Ottomans set up a new empire in what is now modern Turkey, the Safavid Empire in modern Iran and the rise of the Mughal Empire in India.
Notes: Between 1300 and 1700, three Muslim empires ruled in Southwest Asia and India.
1. Around 1300, Osman I built a small state in present-day Turkey.
2. That state was the beginning of the Ottoman Empire.
3. Osman’s successors expanded his territory, even conquering Constantinople.
4. The empire endured until the early 20th century.
1. In the early 1500s a group of Shi’a Muslims, the Safavids, built an empire in 2. Persia. Within a century they had established a culture that blended features of the 3. Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds.
1. A third group of Muslims built the Mughal Empire in India beginning in the early 2. 1500s. After 1799, the empire broke up into small independent states.
Odds & Ends
The Ottomans treated non-Muslims well
1. practice their own religion, although they did put a tax on them.
2. placed some Christians into slavery, to serve as soldiers or government officials.
Suleiman and Shah Abbas weakened their empires
1. killed or hurt their sons who were able
2. leaving only weak rulers to follow them.
1. blended new languages, Hindi and Urdu.
2. art of illustrating books, adapted from Persian
3. government jobs to either Muslims or Hindus based on ability, not religion.
discontinue his policy of religious toleration, which led to conflict
Ambitious building programs and military campaigns produced high taxes,
The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700
1. a. Turkey.
2. b. Istanbul.
3. d. janissaries
4. c. Muslims
5. BCR Possible answers are Tolerance & Ruthlessness
• Tolerance: those emperors who encouraged religious and ethnic understanding were the most successful in keeping the peace between the diverse peoples that populated their empires.
• Ruthlessness: the most successful emperors were those who expanded the territory of their empires through military conquest. Expansion added to the wealth and resources of the empires.
1. The Ottomans treated non-Muslims well, allowing them to practice their own religion, although they did put a tax on them. They also placed some Christians into slavery, to serve as soldiers or government officials.
2. It marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, which traced its origins back to ancient Rome.
3. Both Suleiman and Shah Abbas weakened their empires by killing or hurting their sons who were able, leaving only weak rulers to follow them.
4. Akbar’s policy of blending produced two new languages, Hindi and Urdu. The art of illustrating books, which became refined under his rule, was adapted from Persian art. He also gave government jobs to either Muslims or Hindus based on ability, not religion.
5. Akbar’s successors did not continue his policy of religious toleration, which led to conflict between Hindus and Muslims. Ambitious building programs and military campaigns produced high taxes, which were unfairly paid only by Hindus. This added to the conflict between groups.
Summary: In today’s lesson, we reviewed the Ottomans empire, which is now modern Turkey; the Safavid Empire, which is now Iran; and the Mughal Empire, which is now India.
Homework: Tolerance & Ruthlessness
Tolerance: encouraged religious, racial, gender, and ethnic understanding Ruthlessness: military and or violent conquest.
2.4 The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700
______ 1.The Ottoman Empire originated in what is today
______ 2. After being conquered, the city of Constantinople became known as
d. New Mecca.
______ 3. Which of the following were part of the devshirme system?
______ 4. The Mughal emperors were
5. BCR. Think about the qualities that the most successful Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emperors possessed. Choose TWO of these qualities. How do you think they helped the emperors who possessed them to succeed?
The Ottomans established a Muslim Empire
that combined many cultures and lasted for more than 600 years.
In 1300, the world of the eastern Mediterranean was seeing changes. The Byzantine Empire was fading. The Seljuk Turk state had been destroyed by the Mongols. Anatolia, the area of modern Turkey, was now inhabited by groups of nomadic Turks. They saw themselves as ghazis, or warriors for Islam. They formed military groups and raided the lands where non-Muslims lived. The most successful ghazi was Osman.
Western Europeans took his name to be Othman and called his followers Ottomans. Between 1300 and 1326, Osman built a strong but small kingdom in Anatolia. Leaders who came after Osman called themselves sultans, or “ones with power.” They extended the kingdom by buying land, forming alliances with other chieftains, and conquering everyone they could. The military success of the Ottomans was aided by gunpowder—especially as used in cannons. The Ottomans ruled kindly through local offi-
cials appointed by the sultan. Muslims had to serve in the army but paid no taxes. Non-Muslims paid the tax but did not have to serve in the army. Many joined Islam simply to avoid the tax. Most people in
their empire adjusted quickly to their easy rule. One warrior did not. Timur the Lame, called Tamerlane in the west, arose in central Asia. He claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan. The claim probably is not true—but he was as fierce as the Mongol conqueror. He conquered Russia and Persia, where he burned the city of Baghdad to the ground.
In 1402, he defeated the Ottomans in battle and captured the sultan. Timur died three years later on his way to conquer China. Back in Anatolia, the four sons of the last sultan fought for control of the empire. Mehmet I won control, and his son and the four following sultans brought the Ottoman Empire to its greatest power. One of them—Mehmet II—took power in 1451and captured Constantinople. At first,
The Ottomans established a Muslim Empire…..continued
his ships were unable to sail near the city because barriers blocked the way. So he had his soldiers drag the ships over hills so they could be launched on another side of Constantinople.
After several weeks of fighting, the Ottoman force was simply too strong for the tiny army left in the city. In 1453, Constantinople finally fell to the Ottomans. Mehmet made the city his capital, which was renamed Istanbul. The famous and beautiful church of the Hagia Sophia became a mosque. The rebuilt city became home to people from all over the Ottoman Empire.
Other emperors used conquest to make the empire grow. After 1514, Selim the Grim took Persia, Syria, and Palestine. He then captured Arabia, took the Muslim holy cities of Medina and Mecca, and gained control of Egypt.
Mediterranean Sea and took North Africa as far west as Tripoli. Although he was defeated in a battle for Vienna in 1529, his Ottoman Empire remained huge. Suleiman ruled his empire with a highly structured government. Serving the royal family and the government were thousands of slaves.
Among them was an elite group of soldiers called janissaries. They were Christians taken as children and made slaves with personal loyalty to the sultan. They were trained as soldiers and fought fiercely for the sultan. Other slaves held important government jobs. The empire allowed people to follow their own religion.
Jews and Christians were not mistreated by the Ottomans. Suleiman revised the laws of the empire, which won him the name Suleiman the Lawgiver. Suleiman also oversaw an empire that was full of accomplished works of art.
KEY IDEA Many world cultures incorporate influences from various peoples and traditions. Throughout history, diff e rent peoples have lived together, and their cultures have influenced one another. Often these people have blended one culture with another. This can be due to trade, conquest, movement of people from one area to another, or conversion to a new religion. This kind of blending took place in the Safavid Empire of Persia.
The Safavids began as members of an Islamic group that claimed to be related to the prophet Muhammad. In the 1400s, they became allied with the Shi’a, a branch of Islam. The major
group of Muslims, the Sunnis, persecuted the Shi’a for their views. The Safavids, fearing their strong neighbors who were Sunni Muslims, decided to build a strong army to protect themselves. In 1499, a 14-year-old leader named Isma’il led this army to conquer Iran. He took the traditional Persian title of shah, or king, and made the new empire a state of Shi’a.
He reformed the government, getting rid of corrupt officials. He also brought gifted artists to his empire, who helped make his capital and other cities very beautiful. In taking these steps, Shah Abbas drew on good ideas from other cultures. He used Chinese artists and enjoyed good relations with nations of Europe. Through this contact, the demand for Persian rugs increased greatly in Europe. In this period, rug making, which had simply been a local craft in Persia, was changed into a major industry for the country.
1. Recognizing Facts and Details How did the Ottomans treat non-Muslims?
2. Making Judgments What was significant about the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453?
3. Recognizing Main Idea Despite their brilliant rule, what critical mistake did Suleiman and Shah Abbas make?
4. Recognizing Facts and Details What evidence of cultural blending can you find in Akbar’s rule?
5. Perceiving Cause and Effect How did Akbar’s successors contribute to the end of the Mughal Empire?
In your own words, Summarize today’s lesson.
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